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Telescope principle
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The telescope is a visual optical instrument for observing distant objects, the object is very small angle according to certain magnification, the image space has a larger angle, which could not see with the naked eye and distinguish the object clear. So, the telescope is an indispensable tool in astronomy and ground observation. Is a kind of objective and eyepiece through the incident beam parallel optical system remains parallel injection. According to the principle of telescope is generally divided into three types.

A refracting telescope, lens is used as the objective lens telescope. Divided into two types: a concave lens for the Galileo telescope eyepiece; the convex lens for the eyepiece telescope. Kepler said the single lens chromatic and spherical aberration are quite serious, modern refracting telescope used two or more than two lens group crop mirror. The double lens is most widely used. Composed of concave lens made a crown glass convex lens by it are very close and a piece of flint glass, on the two specific wavelength to completely eliminate the position of color, can also be reduced to the rest of the wavelength position of color

Under certain design conditions, can also eliminate spherical aberration and coma. Due to the influence of residual aberrations and other aberrations, relatively small caliber double lens, is generally 1/15-1/20, less than 1/7, the available field is not large. Double lens diameter less than 8 cm can be two lenses glued together, called Double cemented lens, leave the gap without glue called Double separation lens. In order to increase the relative aperture and field of view, the objective lens group. For the Galileo telescope, a very simple structure, less energy loss. The tube is short, very light. And a positive, but multiple small wild narrow, generally used for opera glasses and toys for Kepler telescope. The telescope, you need to add a prism group or lens group to turn back to the eye as in the lens, as is observed. The general refracting telescope is used because of the refraction Kepler structure. The imaging quality of the telescope than the reflecting telescope, wide field of view, easy to use, easy to maintain, in a small telescope and many special instruments use index system, but large manufacture than the refracting telescope reflecting telescope is more difficult, because the quality of large aperture lens smelting is very difficult, and there is glass on the absorption of light. So a large aperture telescope using reflection

Two. A reflection telescope, a telescope using a concave mirror as an object lens. It can be divided into a Newton telescope.

Casey Green telescope

Other types. The main advantages of reflecting telescope is no color difference, when using parabolic lens, can eliminate spherical aberration. But in order to reduce the influence of other aberrations, available field is small. For mirror manufacturing materials requires smaller thermal expansion coefficient and stress of small and easy grinding. Grinding mirror good in plating a layer of aluminum film on the surface of the aluminum film, the reflectivity at 2000-9000 angstrom wavelength range is greater than 80%, so in addition to the optical band, the reflecting telescope is also suitable for bands in near infrared and near ultraviolet are studied. The relative aperture of the reflecting telescope can be made larger, the main focus of reflecting telescope aperture is about 1/5-1/2.5, even more in addition, the Newton telescope, barrel length ratio of the focal length of the system is much shorter, with only a primary mirror surface machining, which greatly reduces the cost and manufacturing difficulty, so the current export Size is greater than 1.34 meter optical telescope are all reflecting telescope. A large caliber reflector telescope secondary mirror, through the transformation of different, can obtain the main focus system (or Newton system), and fold axis Cassegrain system system. In this way, a telescope can obtain several different relative aperture and field of view reflecting telescope. Mainly used for astrophysical work.

Three, the catadioptric telescope is based on spherical reflector and added refraction element to correct aberration. It can avoid difficult aspheric processing and obtain good image quality. The famous Schmidt telescope is a famous telescope.

It placed a Schmidt plate at the center location of the spherical mirror. It is a surface is flat, the other face is an aspherical mild deformation, the central part of the beam slightly convergence, while the periphery part is slightly divergent, correction of spherical aberration and coma. There is also a telescope, Maqsood

A meniscus lens in front of a spherical mirror, parameter selection and location of the meniscus lens right, can also correct spherical aberration and coma. Derivatives and the two telescope, such as super Schmidt telescope, Beck Nunn camera. In catadioptric telescope, by imaging mirror, mirror for aberration correction. It is characterized by relatively large caliber (even greater than 1), strong power, wide field of view, good image quality. For the survey and observation of photography nebulae, comets and meteors and other celestial bodies. If the catadioptric telescope small visual kaseghe forest system, lens barrel can be very short.